Small States in the UN Security Council:
Ambitions and Achievements of Estonia and Norway
18 November 2021 at Fotografiska (Telliskivi 60a-8) in Tallinn, Estonia.
Multilateralism is under pressure due to increased great power rivalry and power politics. Yet the protection of international norms and the level playing field provided by multilateral institutions remains particularly important for small states. The United Nations Security Council plays a central role in this regard. Estonia is an elected member of the UNSC in 2020-2021; Norway in 2021-2022.
At this conference, leading policy-makers, diplomats and researchers will explore the priorities, working methods and achievements of Estonia and Norway in the UNSC. They will also look at cooperation between Estonia and Norway and discuss in more depth some of their key priorities, such as cyber security and conflict resolution in Afganistan and in Eastern Europe.
The conference is organised by the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute (EFPI) at the International Centre for Defence and Security (ICDS) in cooperation with the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), supported by the EEA & Norway Grants, in the framework of the EFPI-NUPI project “Estonian-Norwegian cooperation in the United Nations and Its Security Council: Defending and Renewing Multilateralism”.
The conference will mark the launch of the report “Small States, Different Approaches: Estonia and Norway on the UN Security Council”, written by Kristin Haugevik, Piret Kuusik, Kristi Raik and Niels Nagelhus Schia.
9:30 – 10:00 Opening session
Introduction by Kristi Raik, Director of the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute (EFPI) at the ICDS
Opening remarks by Eva-Maria Liimets, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Estonia and Anniken Huitfeldt, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Norway
10:00 – 11:15 Session I: Small states in the UNSC: lessons learned of Estonia and Norway
Kersti Kaljulaid, former President of Estonia; Global Advocate of the UN Secretary-General for Every Woman Every Child
Kristin Haugevik, Senior Research Fellow; Head of Research Group on Global Order and Diplomacy, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI)
Piret Kuusik, Former Research Fellow of the EFPI / ICDS
Joakim Vaverka, Deputy Director of SIPRI, former Head of Political Affairs at the Permanent Mission of Sweden to the UN
Moderator: Kristi Raik, Director of the EFPI / ICDS
11:45 – 13:00 Session II: UNSC in the field of cyber security
Heli Tiirmaa-Klaar, Ambassador-at-Large for Cyber Diplomacy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia
Ianneke Borgersen Karlsen, Counsellor / Deputy Military Adviser and Cyber Coordinator at the Permanent Mission of Norway to the UN
Lauri Mälksoo, Professor of International Law, University of Tartu
Niels Nagelhus Schia, Senior Research Fellow; Head of NUPI´s Centre for Cyber Security Studies
Moderator: Anna-Maria Osula, Senior Researcher, Tallinn University of Technology
14:00 – 15:15 Session III: UNSC and conflict resolution: Ukraine, Belarus, Afghanistan
Richard Gowan, UN Director, International Crisis Group
Ole Andreas Lindeman, Ambassador of Norway to Afghanistan
Andre Lipand, Deputy Permanent Representative of Estonia to the UN
Katia Glod, Non-Resident Fellow, Center for European Policy Analysis
Moderator: James Sherr OBE, Senior Fellow, EFPI / ICDS
15:15-15:30 Concluding remarks
Kristin Haugevik, NUPI, and Kristi Raik, EFPI / ICDS
Participation on-site by invitation only.
The conference will be livestreamed.
Non-Resident fellow, Center for European Policy Analysis
Katia Glod is also an independent analyst and political risk consultant. She advises on the politics and economics of former Soviet countries. Glod worked as the Belarus representative of the European Endowment for Democracy in Minsk. She also worked as an election observer and analyst for the OSCE in countries such as Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Albania and North Macedonia. Glod was also a Robert Bosch Academy Fellow in the Russia and Eurasia Programme at Chatham House in London. Prior to that, she managed research projects on labour migration and public attitudes for the Eurasian Development Bank in Russia and Kazakhstan.
UN Director, International Crisis Group
Richard Gowan was previously a Consulting Analyst with ICG in 2016 and 2017. He has worked with the European Council on Foreign Relations, the New York University Center on International Cooperation and the Foreign Policy Centre (London). He has taught at the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University and at Stanford University in New York. He has also worked as a consultant for a number of organisations including the UN Department of Political Affairs, the UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on International Migration, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Rasmussen Global, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Global Affairs Canada. From 2013 to 2019, he wrote a weekly column (“Diplomatic Fallout”) for World Politics Review.
Senior Research Fellow; Head of Research Group on Global Order and Diplomacy, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
Kristin Haugevik holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of Oslo (2014). Her research at NUPI revolves around inter-state cooperation, friendship and diplomacy, with a geographical focus on the European and transatlantic region and the foreign and security policies of Britain and the Nordic states
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Norway
Anniken Huitfeldt chaired the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence and the Enlarged Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee from 2013 to 2017. Prior to that, she was Minister of Labour (2012–2013), Minister of Culture (2010–2012), Minister of Culture and Church Affairs (2009) and Minister of Children and Equality (2008–2009). She served as member of the Storting (Norwegian parliament) for 16 years. Huitfeldt started her political career in 1996 as President of the Labour Youth League (AUF). From 2007 to 2019, she was Head of the Norwegian Labour Party women’s network. She has been the leader of the Akershus Labour Party since 2019 and a member of the Labour Party Central Executive Committee since 2002.
Former President of Estonia; Global Advocate of the UN Secretary-General for Every Woman Every Child
H.E. Kersti Kaljulaid was President of Estonia in 2016–2021. Previously, she had served as a Member of the European Court of Auditors, advising Prime Minister Mart Laar and holding different top-level positions in energy, investment banking and the telecom sector. A genetic engineer and economist by education, she has been a member of the Supervisory Board of the Estonian Genome Center and Council Chair of the University of Tartu from 2012 to 2016. During her presidency, she has been a vocal advocate of human rights, rule of law, freedom of speech and democracy. She is a desired speaker in the most prominent forums on the topics of digitalisation, economics, foreign and security policy. President Kaljulaid is the first Estonian to be featured in the Forbes World’s 100 Most Powerful Women. In 2021, she was appointed the first Global Advocate for Every Woman Every Child by the United Nations Secretary-General.
Ianneke Borgersen Karlsen
Counsellor / Deputy Military Adviser and Cyber Coordinator at the Permanent Mission of Norway to the UN
Ianneke Borgersen Karlsen has been serving as Counsellor/Deputy Military Adviser and cyber coordinator at the Permanent Mission of Norway to the UN in New York since 2019. Her previous post was at the Norwegian Ministry of Defence as Senior Legal Adviser of international law with a particular responsibility for cyber, the development of cyber framework and cyber related issues. She is a reserve army officer in the Norwegian Armed Forces and has a Master of Law degree from the University of Oslo. She has also taken a number of additional credits and courses on international law, including the International Law of Cyber Operations Course at NATO CCD COE in Tallinn.
Former Research Fellow of the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute / ICDS
Piret Kuusik works at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia with the external and geopolitical dimensions of the energy and green transition since autumn 2021. Prior to that she worked as a Research Fellow of the EFPI at the ICDS focusing on Europe, the EU and the Nordic-Baltic region. Her research and interests were driven by the question how global and European developments affect small states and their foreign and security policies. In addition, she was one of the organisers of the annual foreign and security policy conference – the Lennart Meri Conference. Kuusik completed her BA studies at the University of York, UK, and her MA studies at the Paris School of International Affairs (PSIA), Sciences Po Paris.
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Estonia
Eva-Maria Liimets is the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Estonia since January 2021. She started her career in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1997. She was Estonian Ambassador in the Czech Republic with co-accreditation in Slovenia and Croatia (2017–2021). Before that, she was Adviser to the European Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2017–2018), Consul General in New York (2014–2017), Director of the Office of International Organisations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2009–2014), 1st Secretary of the Embassy and later Vice Head of the Embassy in Washington DC (2006–2009), 2nd Secretary of the Political Department (2003–2006), and Economic Diplomat in the Embassy in Rome (1999–2003).
Ole Andreas Lindeman
Ambassador of Norway to Afghanistan
H.E. Ole Andreas Lindeman took office as Ambassador of Norway to Afghanistan in August 2020, and is now temporarily based in Doha, Qatar. He has worked with the UN, OSCE and NATO, and was Special Envoy for Norway’s Energy and Climate Initiative. He has also worked for the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies and has published research articles on peacebuilding and security, the High North and Russian foreign policy, as well as on the international political economy and development. In 2001, he was Political Advisor for the KFOR Commander. He worked as Deputy Director in the Ministry of Trade and Industry. H.E. Lindeman has served in the Ukraine, France and Russia. He was Ambassador of Norway to Mali, also covering Mauritania, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad, as well as Consul General in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, Russia.
Deputy Permanent Representative of Estonia to the UN
Andre Lipand took up the post of Deputy Permanent Representative of Estonia to the UN on 15 July 2021 having previously been responsible for Security Council and 5th Committee topics in the Estonian Mission to the UN. Lipand has served in the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs since 2008. His previous postings include a diplomat post to Estonia’s Embassy in Beijing, Consulate General in Shanghai and a position at the Mission of Estonia to the United Nations. He has also worked on energy and climate policy in the Foreign Ministry.
Professor of International Law, University of Tartu
Professor of International Law at the University of Tartu, Dr Mälksoo is a member of the Institut de Droit International and of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. He has published widely on international law and human rights, including a monograph “Russian Approaches to International Law” (Oxford University Press, 2015).
Niels Nagelhus Schia
Senior Research Fellow, Head of NUPI´s Centre for Cyber Security Studies
Niels Nagelhus Schia is also co-chairing the secretariate for the Dialogue Forum for Norway’s membership of the UN Security Council 2021–2022 which organises a series of thematic roundtable meetings about current issues on the Security Council’s agenda. Schia holds a PhD in social anthropology from the University of Oslo. He has extensive experience from field work in the UN Security Council, where he has, among other things, looked at decision-making processes, internal dynamics, and the development of various thematic issues on the Security Council’s agenda. In addition, he has researched policy processes in the UN bureaucracy, as well as local, national and regional processes related to peacebuilding in various African and Asian countries.
Senior Researcher, Tallinn University of Technology
Anna-Maria Osula is a Senior Policy Officer at Guardtime, with a focus on cybersecurity policy and regulation and supporting international R&D projects. She also serves as senior researcher and lecturer at Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech), and as a Research Fellow at Masaryk University under the project “Cyber Security, Cyber Crime and Critical Information Infrastructures Center of Excellence”. Previously, she worked as a Legal Researcher at the NATO CCDCOE, focusing on national cybersecurity strategies, international organisations, international criminal cooperation and cyber norms.
Director of the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute at the ICDS
Dr Kristi Raik has been the Director of the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute at the ICDS since February 2018. She is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Turku. Dr Raik has previously served inter alia as a Senior Research Fellow and Acting Programme Director at the Finnish Institute of International Affairs in Helsinki; an official at the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union in Brussels; and a Visiting Fellow at the Centre for European Policy Studies in Brussels and the International Centre for Policy Studies in Kyiv. Dr Raik has a PhD from the University of Turku. She has published, lectured and commented widely on European foreign and security policy.
James Sherr OBE
Senior Fellow of the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute at the ICDS
For over 25 years, James Sherr OBE has been regularly consulted by Western governments on the foreign, defence and security policies of the Russian Federation and since 1995 has had an active advisory role in Ukraine, working closely with the defence and security establishment. A frequent visitor to Estonia and its Baltic neighbours since 1991, he took up residence in Estonia in January 2019. Sherr is also an Associate Fellow of the Russia and Eurasia Programme of Chatham House, a Senior Associate Fellow of the Institute of Statecraft, a Visiting Fellow of the Razumkov Centre (Kyiv) and a former Bosch Public Policy Fellow of the Transatlantic Academy of the German Marshall Fund in Washington.
Ambassador for Cyber Diplomacy and Director General for the Cyber Diplomacy Department at the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Up until fall 2018, H.E. Heli Tiirmaa-Klaar was Head of Cyber Policy Coordination at the European External Action Service since 2012 where she steered and coordinated EU external relations on cyber issues. In 2011, she was assigned to the NATO International Staff to prepare the NATO Cyber Defence Policy. She has been working on cybersecurity since 2007 when she led the development of the Estonian Cyber Security Strategy. In 2008–2010, she coordinated the implementation of the Estonian strategy, managed the National Cyber Security Council and led the establishment of Estonia’s national cyber resilience structures as well as public-private partnerships for cybersecurity. In her earlier career, she held various managerial positions at the Estonian Ministry of Defence and Tallinn University. She was a Fulbright Scholar at George Washington University and has been published in several academic journals throughout her career.
Deputy Director of SIPRI, former Head of Political Affairs at the Permanent Mission of Sweden to the UN
Before joining SIPRI in September 2020, Joakim Vaverka was Head of Political Affairs at the Permanent Mission of Sweden to the UN in New York. Prior to that, he was Head of the Global Division of the Security Policy Department at the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Vaverka held various positions in the Swedish Foreign Service, including at the Embassy of Sweden in Cairo, Egypt, the Permanent Mission of Sweden to the UN, and the Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Division of the Global Security Department of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Vaverka has also worked at the Department for International and Security Affairs in the Swedish Ministry of Defence.
The COVID-19 pandemic requires us to take additional precautions to ensure as far as possible the safety and health of our conference guests. We are aiming to organise a physical conference with guests both from home and abroad. We will strictly follow the health protocols and codes of conduct which are in force in November.
Please note that in order to participate, you are required to have a vaccination certificate, or a document proving that you have been ill with COVID-19 in the past 180 days.